A way of monitoring pH or the acid level in the esophagus, usually for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Capsule Endoscopy

This involves the patient swallowing a camera capsule, approximately the size of a large vitamin, which then passes through the entire gastrointestinal tract. The images taken by the capsule are then transmitted wirelessly to sensors worn outside the body, and then they are uploaded onto a computer where they can be reviewed.


An endoscopic procedure that examines the entire colon or large intestine, enabling the endoscopist to remove polyps or growths and also to take biopsies.

EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy)

This is also referred to as upper endoscopy. This is an endoscopic procedure that examines the esophagus, stomach, and upper portion of the small intestine. The endoscopist is able to biopsy and perform interventions in the evaluation of patients with swallowing problems, abdominal/chest pain, indigestion or reflux, as well as other gastrointestinal symptoms.


Similar to an EGD, this is a method of visualizing much more the small intestine, especially in patients with obscure blood loss, malabsorption, diarrhea, and tumors.

ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography)

This is performed similarly to an EGD but quite a bit more involved. The tubes or ducts draining the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are examined. In many situations, therapeutic intervention can be achieved using specialized devices to treat gallstones, strictures or narrowed segments, and even tumors.

Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

This procedure is similar to colonoscopy except usually only the lower portion of the colon is inspected.

Liver Biopsy

A small piece of tissue from the liver about the size of an inchworm is removed and evaluated for signs of damage or disease.


Often referring to the esophagus, this is a way of measuring pressures so as to allow a gastroenterologist to diagnose many conditions that could be causing swallowing problems or chest pain.

PEG (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy) tube

This involves placement of a tube directly into the stomach, usually for nutritional purposes.